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This article 1 gives background information about the records; 2 describes the government forms used to record information about persons crossing the U. Early records relating to immigration originated in regional customhouses. The U. Customs Service conducted its business by deating collection districts.
Each district had a headquarters port with a customhouse and a collector of customs, the chief officer of the district. An act of March 2, 3 Stat. The act also required that the collector submit a quarterly report or abstract, consisting of copies of these passenger lists, to the Secretary of State, who was required to submit such information at each session of Congress. After , collectors forwarded only statistical reports to the Treasury Department.
The lists themselves were retained by the collector of customs. Customs records were maintained primarily for statistical purposes. On August 3, , Congress passed the first Federal law regulating immigration 22 Stat. In administration of the Chinese-exclusion laws was added. Initially the Bureau retained the same administrative structure of ports of entry that the Customs Service had used. By the turn of the century it began to deate its own immigration districts, the s and boundaries of which changed over the years.
In the Bureau became part of the Department of Commerce and Labor; its name was changed to the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization when functions relating to naturalization were added in In the functions were transferred to the Department of Labor and became the responsibility of the newly formed Immigration and Naturalization Service INS. Under President Franklin D.
The INS was abolished in , and its immigration and naturalization recordkeeping functions were transferred to the new Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services within the new Department of Homeland Security, established January 24, , by the Homeland Security Act of Pub. Keeping statistics on alien arrivals at U. Thus, statistical treatment of Canadian and Mexican border immigrants at times has differed from that of other immigrants. When records of arrivals began to be kept at the Canadian border in and at the Mexican border, ca.
Therefore, separate cards or "card manifests" for each person were used instead. These cards contained the same information as that collected on traditional ship passenger arrival lists, such as full name, age, sex, marital status, occupation, point of arrival in the United States, and final destination. Beginning in , immigrants who arrived at Canadian seaports with the declared intention of proceeding to the United States were recorded and included in the immigration statistics. Other alien arrivals at land borders began to be reported in , and reporting was fully established in under authority of an act of February 20, 34 Stat.
Not all aliens entering via the Canadian and Mexican borders were necessarily counted for inclusion in the immigration statistics. Before approximately , no count was made of residents of Canada, Newfoundland, or Mexico who had lived in those countries for a year or more if they planned to enter the United States for less than 6 months. However, from about to , the following classes of aliens entering via the land borders were included in immigration statistics:. These classes were revised in so that the statistics of arriving aliens at land border ports of entry for included arriving aliens who came into the United States for 30 days or more, and returning alien residents who had been out of the country more than 6 months.
Arriving aliens who came into the United States for 29 days or less were not counted except for those who were either certified by public health officials, held for a board of special inquiry, excluded and deported, or were individuals in transit who announced an intention to depart across another land boundary or by sea. From to at least , all arriving aliens at land border ports of entry were counted for statistical purposes except Canadian citizens and British subjects resident in Canada who were admitted for 6 months or less; Mexican citizens who were admitted for 72 hours or less; and returning U.
Beginning in February , residents returning from stays of less than 6 months in Western Hemisphere countries also were not counted. Because of regulation changes in , returning residents without reentry permits or visas who had been abroad for 1 year or less were not counted. Summary: Statistical arrivals were immigrants or nonimmigrants who were subject to the head tax and generally not from the Western Hemisphere. By contrast, nonstatistical arrivals were immigrant or nonimmigrants who usually were natives of the Western Hemisphere and not subject to the head tax.
Although arrival of the latter was not included in immigration statistics, a record of that arrival may still have been made. It cannot be said with certainty that the definitions of statistical and nonstatistical arrivals were applied uniformly at any particular port on the Canadian or Mexican borders.
Since , arriving aliens were divided into two classes: 1 immigrants, or those who intended to settle in the U. Since , aliens arriving to settle in the U. Quota immigrants were those admitted under quotas established for countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, the Pacific Basin and the colonies, dependencies, and protectorates belonging to those nations.
Nonquota immigrants were spouses and unmarried children of U. From to , professors and their spouses and children were also classified as nonquota immigrants. Nonimmigrants were alien residents of the U. For further information about immigration and naturalization laws prior to , see Laws Applicable to Immigration and Nationality, Edwina A. Avery and Catherine R. Gibson, eds. Government Printing Office, As would be expected, Mexican nationals comprised the vast majority of alien arrivals at the U.
However, Europeans also entered the U. A scattering of U. Many of the records are arranged alphabetically. Others are arranged chronologically, then by manifest . Chronologically-arranged records usually have a related alphabetical index.
Alphabetically-arranged records are filed by surname, then by first name, subject to special rules. Double names are filed as if the second part of the double name were not there. Surnames like De La Huerta are filed under Huerta. Additional "special rules" may also govern arrangement of particular record series.
July December 62 rolls , shows some alphabetical disarrangement due to human error as well as three variations in the filing scheme: 1 similar-sounding surnames may be filed together; 2 within a surname, first names that start with the same letter may be filed together; and 3 within a surname, there may have been no attempt to alphabetize by first name. There are numerous instances of similar-sounding names being filed together.
For example, Spanish surnames containing the letter "s" may be filed as if the letter were "z. Also, within a particular surname, first names like Antonia and Antonio may be filed together. Alphabetical disarrangement of the records is common, particularly in larger record series, and may cause overlap within or between microfilm rolls. The descriptive material reproduced at the beginning of each roll alerts researchers to special rules or problems concerning arrangement noticed during processing.
When records of arrivals began to be kept at U. Therefore, a separate "card manifest" for each person was used instead. These cards largely contained the same information as that collected on the traditional ship passenger arrival lists.
However, different types of card manifests were used for different purposes;this article describes the most common ones. All of the forms described below included the person's name, age or date of birth, gender, date of entry into the U.
If the person's physical description is given, this usually includes height, complexion, hair color, eye color, and identifying marks. The reverse side of some cards include instructions for the form's use, annotations noting dates of subsequent entries into the U. The most common "card manifest" was the Form , B, or Form I, Manifest , generally includes the person's marital status, place of birth, physical description, occupation, ability to read and write and in what language, place of last permanent residence, destination, purpose for entering U. It also includes the name and address of the friend or relative whom the alien intended to , persons accompanying the alien, and the name and address of the alien's nearest relative or friend in the country from which he or she came.
If the alien had ever been in the U. Additional information may be recorded if the alien appealed a decision deporting or barring him from entering the U. Form or I is generally a card manifest. However, during some periods at some ports, the INS used an entire sheet of paper for the Form manifest. Both sizes of manifest generally included the same information. The reverse side of the card manifest Form sometimes includes the alien's photograph, sometimes with spouse and minor children. Form unnamed or Form F unnamed was a form intended for use as an index card to ship passenger arrivals, as indicated by its use of the terms, "steamer," "line" as in steamship line , "Group" for a ship manifest , and "List" line on a ship manifest.
This form was adapted to use with land border arrivals. It includes the person's name, age, sex, "steamer" annotated to indicate name of railroad , "line" annotated to indicate destination , date and port of arrival, "Group" Manifest No. The serial and date of arrival are used to locate a corresponding sheet manifest. Form , Statistical , includes the person's marital status, occupation, ability to read and write, last place of residence, future place of residence, place of birth, and physical description. These cards also indicate who paid the immigrant's passage, the amount of money the person brought, and names of persons accompanying him or her.
Form , Statistical , includes the person's name, age, sex, marital status, occupation, ability to read or write, race, place of last residence, place of future residence, amount of money, manifest , and physical description. It also includes the names of persons accompanying him or her and the name of the person whom he or she will in the United States.
It may also indicate the date, port, and cause of being debarred from the United States. Form , Nonstatistical , includes the person's name, age, sex, marital status, race, occupation, ability to read and write, last place of residence, destination, and port and date of admission. It also indicates the names of persons and amount of money he or she was carrying. This card may contain all available entry information. Form A untitled; some show no , includes the person's name, age, sex, nationality, race, physical description, last residence, destination, and the date, port, and cause for being debarred from the United States.
Cause is often LPC likely to become a public charge or no visa. Form , Record of Registry , includes the following information about the alien as of the alien's date of arrival: name; age; occupation; place of last residence before entry; and means ship, railway, etc. This form also includes the following information about the alien as of the alien's date of registry: name, age, occupation, physical description, place of residence, and place of birth. It also includes the alien's photograph, date of approval of registry, certificate of registry , district file , and bureau file .
Sometimes, "homemade" typewritten versions of this official INS form were used; these do not indicate the form . In particular, if an alien had entered the U. The registry program was reauthorized by the Nationality Act of 54 Stat. Form Spl. It includes his photograph, destination, and employer's name, and this text: "The bearer, a native and citizen of Mexico, has this day been granted the privilege of temporarily entering the United States in accordance with and under the conditions of Department [of Labor] circular of June 12, , as amended.
If the person was a native-born U. If the person was a naturalized U. The annotated to the right of the person's name or gender is generally the "real" manifest that is used, along with the date of arrival, to locate the person's statistical manifest--which contains additional information--in a separate series of card manifests.
Sometimes, information was simply typewritten onto a blank card instead of a Form Spl. It also indicates persons accompanying the alien, the amount of money the alien carried, and if he or she had ever been in the U. The reverse side of some cards may be annotated with dates of subsequent admissions to the U. Form I, Record of Alien Admitted for Temporary Stay , includes the person's home address, place of birth, marital status, occupation, physical description, name and address of nearest relative at home, date of entry into the U. Form IF, Examination Record , includes the person's name, date and place of birth, gender, marital status, occupation, physical description, names of accompanying aline children under age 14, name and address of nearest relative at home, name and address of person to whom destined, purpose and intended length of U.Seks man looking for a San Antonio card arrangement
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